Located on Makli Hills south of the Archaeological campus at a distance of about five miles are the extensive remains of a ruined fort once known as “Kalan Kot” or Tughlaqabad.
This fort, according to Tarikh-i-Masumi, is said to have been constructed by Mirza Jani Baig somewhere in the last quarter of 16th century A.D. on the site of an earlier fort built by Jam Taghur or Taghlik on the site of a still earlier Hindu Fort. Mirza Jani Baig, while fighting with Emperor Akbar’s troops under Khan Khanan, wrote to his father payday Baig and his son Abul Fateh who were at Thatta, to construct a fort as a place of refuge, should be abandoned to its fate and they should he be compelled to flee before the enemy. He further desired, under such circumstances, the city of Thatta should be abandoned to its fate and they should take themselves along with the peoples to Kalan Kot. So was done, we are told, and the city of Thatta was laid waste for a short duration.
The fort is extensive and appears to be an irregular oblong in the plan. The fort was which is about 14½ thick and together with its circular bastions is built with a core of mud bricks lined on either side with a layer of burnt bricks laid in mud mortar. The thickness of this burnt brick lining is about 10 inches.
From the structure remains which are still available on the site, it is quite evident that the entire area of the fort was divided into different sectors each beset with various types of residential buildings. Nothing is left of such a big fort except some dilapidated portion of the fortification wall or ruined bastions. The only conspicuous feature among the remains is the ruined mosque with a big tank in front of it. The rough extent of the mosque may be taken as 250’x165’ and that of the tank 96’x87’x14’. What remains now of the mosque is the main roofless prayer chamber with its main entrance arch on the east thickness of which is 10 feet. The existing height of the walls is about 25 feet. In the mehrab on the west, there is the remain of honey-combed plasterwork. The Jambs and spandrels of the upper niches are lined with white/blue glazed tiles the traces of which can still be seen. The floor of the mosque was paved with plain tiles. The main entrance arch of the mosque has been lined with cut and dressed brick tiles laid in mud mortar but the visible joints are deeply treated with lime chiroli mortar. A damaged stone pulpit beautifully carved in floral design also occupies the space in the NW corner of the mosque. The tank lying in front of the mosque is deeply out in rock-lined with bricks laid in lime mortar and finally and finally covered with thick lime plaster.
Visit hours: Open 24 Hours.
The departmental representative at the site: Mr. Sarfaraz Jatoi. Mobile: +92 301 2005038