Kot Diji mound is situated 23 km south of Khairpur city, is the earliest know ruin of the great chalcolithic civilization of the Indus Valley. The picture of the Indus valley Civilization as presented to us was that of a fully developed culture of which the beginning was obscure. In 1946, Sir Mortimer Wheeler discovered a distinct class of ceramic below the defense wall at Harappa which he considered of an insignificant nature and belonging to some alien people. The excavations conducted by Dr. F.A Khan at Kot Diji in 1958 proved that the alien pottery below the massive defenses at Harappa in fact belonged to a distinct pre-Harappan culture which certainly inspired and influenced the Harappan culture. Digging carried out in both vertical and horizontal, on the top and the eastern slope of the mound have provided a complete cross section of the KotDiji site, revealing valuable information about the cultural sequence and the art and architectural details of the occupational phases. The excavation results have clearly revealed the evidence of settled conditions when the Kot Dijians manufactured well-finished pottery and built their houses in mud-brick. The people of Harappa barrowed some of the decorative designs and motifs on pottery from the Kot Dijians and above all, they learnt the art of fortification from the Kot Dijians to which their fortified cities, Harappa and Mohenjodaro bear witness.The ancient Kot Diji mound comprised a citadel where the ruling class lived and another part of the city which was the dwelling of the common populace. The present height of the mound is 13 m high runs from east to west and measures 198 m in length and about 134 m in breadth.