Mian Yar Muhammad was the first Kalhora ruler of Sindh. After wandering about northern Sindh and Baluchistan upon warlike expeditions, settled down at Khudabad on wresting it from the Panwhars and it was he who gave it that name. He died in 1718 A.D.

The great tomb of Yar Muhammad is situated some little to the west of the jami Masjid in Khudabad is a square massive buildings the front of which is fully decorated with enameled tiles. High up on other three sides of the building are rows of large arched windows fitted with perforated terracotta screens of delicate geometric tracery. Similar windows, upon the front are fitted with perforated glazed tiles.  

The great panel of colored tiles above the entrance is a remarkable piece of work. Nearly ten feet square it is made up of no less than 240 square tiles. The usual way in which these large single pattern are drawn out by the present makers, is by laying the plain tiles out upon the ground, closely packed to the same size as the panel. Then drawing and painting is executed in the pattern as if whole were one flat surface. The large arched panels on either side of the square panel and below it are also manufactured in a very nice way. The great central panel recall, somewhat the great rose windows in Gothic work.

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Khudabad is an old ruined fortified city between Sehwan and Dadu about seven miles south of the letter place. It was for some time the capital of Kalhoras before they finally settled down at Hyderabad.

 In the midst of the ruins of the old town stands the great massive jamia Masjid. It has been lavishly adorned with enameled tiles. On either side of the entrance of the mosque is a beautiful panel which is a quite the best thing in tiles to be found in Sindh. Unlike the general run of design, which however floral the patterns are sis posed more or less in geometrical forms. It represents a tall and graceful plant lily order whose leaves, flowers and buds sprout from the central stem and fall over right and left in easy natural curves.

Its glazed tiles and fresco paintings were considerably damaged by the people before its protection by the Department of Archaeology.

The prayer chamber is divided into two equal compartments. The first or eastern compartment, a roofless one, is a small hall. This hall seems to have a low flat roof, providing an access to the gallery achieved at the squinch level of the domed western compartment. Massive piers supporting the elegant arches divide the western hall into three aisles, the central one larger in size than the flanking one. Each by a has an arched mehrab sunk in the western wall.

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Situated fifteen miles South of the Khairpur Town just opposite Kotdiji Fort on National Highway.

Kot Diji is the earliest known ruins of the great of the great Chaleolithic Civilization of the Indus Valley.

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On the north of the town Sehwan are lying the remains of the great Fort, which is said to built of Alexander the Great, but nothing greel has been found there except an occasional coin. But this only proves that the coin got there not necessarily the Greeks. In the bottom of some of the gorges may be founds few of the very old style of Hindu bricks of extra large size, which must date back to the early centuries of the Christian era. The sites of the old entrances to the fort are so obliterated that even traces are hardly to be found except at the south-east corner where the present road ascends. At some period the fort seems to have been raised to about twice its former height possibly by the Muslims.

The Fort is now an immense mound of earth, measuring roughly 400 x 200 yards and about 60 feet high. It is filled with notsherds, brick-bots bones, charcoal, ashle etc. there are some structures which indicate the different constructional period of the fort.

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Amri is a small village situated between situated between the right bank of the Indus and the Laki Hills in the district of Dadu where remains of a Chatcolithic settlement were found by N.C.  Majumdar in 1929, Majumdar’s excavations were left inconclusive by his untimely death. French Archaeological Mission with the help of the Pakistan Department of Archaeology spent three seasons in Amri from 1959 to 1962.

            The excavations were carried out on the largest of the three mounds and cut the trenches down to the virgin soil. Three different occupations were detected each distinctly marked by its peculiar pottery and other objects on the basis of which chronological sequence could by established. On the top came the Muslim occupation characterized by glazed and moulded pottery bearing affinities with that of Thatta and Multan. A few coins recovered from the layers indicate that the settlement belonged to the Mughal period.

            Below the Muslim settlement were exposed the remains of a culture which dated back to the 3rd millennium B.C. the potsherds thick in texture indicate a by-product of the Harappan, Jhukar and Chanhudaro cultures which represent the late phase of the Indus Valley Civilization. The lower layers however have brought to fight the mature culture of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. A klin enclosed

            The lower most occupation was marked by a pottery of thin fabric bearing geometric and other motifs in reddish brown and chocolate colours on a buff or sepia body. This is the typical Amri pottery whose parrllels can be traced in Baluchistan and Iran.

            Generally speaking in most of the patterns painted on this new class of pottery, geometric tendency is prevailing which is a well known characterists of Amri. The proportionate designing of the painted ornaments combined with measured strokes of the brush create an extremely pleasing effect and provide a clue to that balanced discipline which have governed the lives of the Amri people.

            The recovery of pottery painted animal patterns and a number of terracotta animal figurines found from undisturbed Amri levels has dispelled the belief that Amri culture is marked by a complete absence of terracotta figurines.

            As to the age of this occupation it can be safely assumed that it roughly corresponds to the Kot Diji period, and the undisputed stratigraphical evidence shows both the cultures preceded the Harappa culture.

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About seventy five miles north-west of Hyderabad on barren range of hills, a gigantic fortification wall runs up and down the contours of the country. The wall which is over 22 miles in length encircles hillocks which appear to have never been inhabited by any regular population. This wall and the barren hills inside make the Rani Kot Fort. The fort lies about 18 miles west of the Railway Station Sann on the Kotri-Larkana line of the Pakistan western Railway. A very sandy and rough track connects it with the Indus highway near the Sann Railway Staion.

There is not much written record to throw light on this fort. From the scanty record available its comes to light that the fort was built in the first quarter of 19th century A.D. by the Mirs’, obviously to resist the pressure of the British forces over Sindh. It was also meant to serve as a stronghold and a place of refuge for the Mirs in case they could not control the march of the British. From a general survey of the fort it becomes obvious that the builders could not have utilized it to their wishes or made use of the fort for which it had been built. It seems the irony of fate that the British took over Sindh even before the completion of the fort.

The fort was planned and constructed under the supervision of Nawab Wali Mohammad Khan Leghari, the prime Minister of Sindh in 1234 A.H./1819 A.D. it was named after a torrent (Rani Nai) which was the main source of supplying water to the whole area.

The bed of a seasonal torrent on the eastern side serves as the main approach to the Rani Kot Fort. The remains of a bridge over it are clear. The fortification wall, built with solid stone, runs north south from both banks of the torrent bed. The fortification wall, which follows the natural contours of the hilly area, has solid semi-circular bastions at intervals.

The fortification wall runs on the three sides of the area while on the northern side the lofty peaks of the higher hillocks serve as a rampart.

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The site is located just north of the present-day village of Pandi Wahi, near the Nari Nai. It is 119 meters long, 107 meter wide, 6 meters high and covers an area of 12,733 square meters. A perennial spring which has its head just south of Karkot, up the Nari Nai channel form pandhi wahi, flows into the Nari Nai and passes the site. In addition, several small nais (e.g., sori and chhedagh) converge just north east of Pandhi Wahi. The prehistoric site is stuated on a gravel terrace above the flooding of the terrents but is close enough to take avantage of seasonal sheet flooding and alluvial fan sediments deposited by the streans.

            Part of the site has been used as a modern burial ground as well. Some excavations were conducted at the site previously. Trench I revealed that the earliest levels at the site were dominated by the Amri bichrome pottery and that in the top-most levels of the site this bichrome pottery was mixed with a block-on red pottery which is similar to that of the Harappan period. In addition to the pottery finds of terracotta, steatite, stone and lapis lazuli beads, terracotta “cakes” and chert flakes.

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Area of tomb: 0.066 Acre

Jám Nizámuddín, also known as Jam Nizam al-Din or Jám Nindó, was the Rajput Sultan of Sindh between 1461 and 1508 CE. He was the most famous ruler of the Samma dynasty, which ruled Sindh, parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1351 to 1551 CE. His capital was Thatta in modern-day southern Pakistan. The Samma dynasty reached the height of its power during the reign of Nizamuddin, who is still recalled as a hero, and whose rule is considered the golden-age of Sindh. 

The tomb of Jam Nizamuddin, is a stone structure with finest ornamental carving, akin to fifteenth century Gujrat style. Its decoration consists of bands of stone carved in relief running around the walls, and representing half and full lotuses, arched panels set with sunflower, calling to mind the Muslim buildings around Ahmadabad in Gujrat. A band of excellent interlaced Arabic inscription in Thulth a verse from the Quran, purely Muslim, seen with a neighboring band of carved geese, entirely Hindu, constitutes a strange combination of contrasting features. The Hindu-style base, about 19’ in length with carved bands in various designs, has recessed door-like panels. The miniature skhara or temple spires seen at both corners are decorated with the most intricate, detailed and beautiful carvings. The mihrab inside is also delicately carved and has very finely cut bands of Arabic inscriptions. However, the stonework of this building represents an excellent specimen of essentially Hindu workmanship.


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Makli is a vast grave having graves made of boulders and plastered with lime chiroli etc. belonging to the period of Summa dynasty.

Makli Necropolis  is one of the largest funerary sites in the world, spread over an area of 10 square kilometres near the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The site houses approximately 500,000 to 1 million tombs built over the course of a 400 year period. Makli Necropolis features several large funerary monuments belonging to royalty, various Sufi saints, and esteemed scholars. The site was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981 as an "outstanding testament" to Sindhi civilization between the 14th and 18th centuries.


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Umerkot, the fort of Umer as it means was found by Umer, the first king of the Soomro dynasty (1050-1350) A.D. the town has a conspicuous fort which was perhaps built by one of the Soomra rulers. In the first half of the 13th century, the fort was occupied by the Rajput ruler named Perma Sodha, whose successors held it for centuries. Rana Parshad one of the rulers of that dynasty played host to Humayun and his contingent on his way to Persia. Kalhoras took the possession of Umerkot but one of the rulers of this dynasty sold it to the Raja of Jodhpur. When Talpurs came to powers, they recovered it in 1813 A.D. it remained in their possession till the British occupied Sindh.

The ancient fort of Umerkot is roughly rectangular in plan measuring 946x785 feet in all. The walls both on its interior & exterior give a tapered look, well supported on all the four corners with semi-circular bastions. On eastern side, there is an arched gateway flanked by semi-circular bastions. Originally the façade of the fortification walls of the fort were lined with burnt brick tiles laid in mud mortar and its core filled with mud. The fortification wall was originally 17 feet wide and raised to a masimum height of 45 feet.

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