Area: 0.036 Acres
The tomb of Mubarak Khan is situated in a quadrangle of high wall built in stone block. It stands in close proximity to the mehrab, cut into the western wall of the enclosure.Mubarak khan also known as Dolha Daria Khan.
Area: 0.36 acres
The tomb of sister Fateh Khan is situated to the north east of Mausoleum of Mubarak Khan, which is in ruined condition. An Arabic stone inscription is built in the western wall (inside) of the shrine, which points out that the tomb was assigned to the sister (hamshira) of Fateh Khan.
Area: 37 Acres
The graveyard known as Maqam Qadam Shah (Qadam Gah) at village Raj Malik contains some tombs built in the local yellow sandstone and belong probably to the 17th & 18th centuries AD. The style of carving and ornamentation on these graves have similarity with those Baloch tombs situated at Chaukundi and elsewhere.
Area: 0.3 Acre
The tomb of sister Fateh Khan is situated to the north east of mausoleum of Mubarak Khan which is in a ruined condition. An Arabic stone inscription is built into the western wall (inside) of the shrine, which points out that the tomb was assigned to the sister (Hamshirah) of Fateh Khan. The inscription in question bears a considerable importance from the historical point of view since it helps us in gleaning a glimpse of genealogy of the Sultan Nizamuddin. An English translation of the same is furnished below:
This (resting place is intended for the aspirer to the mercy of Allah; the arrangement for building) this shrine was made one of Nizamuddin shah; may Allah perpetuate his dominion and sovereignty; in the year eight hundred and ninety eight 898 A.H. (1492 A.D.).
From the above mural document it is evident that Fateh Khan succeeded or nominated by his father Sultan Nizamuddin to the throne of lower Sindh.
Area: 52.38 acres
Village Sonda situated about 20-22 miles from Thatta along main road to Hyderabad was founded according to Mir Ali Shair Qane author of Tuhfat-ul-Karam, by Jam Tamachi in 3rd quarter of fourteenth century A.D. It is said that there lived a saint here before the town was founded. The saint was very fond of Rag Sondra and the village derives its origin from the name of this Rag.
The village was respected by Muslims as a noble family of saints known as Makhdums lived there. Names of Makhdum Ramzan Vedani, mula Ari, Mula Bayazid and Mula Abu Bakar are well renowned for their pious living. The graves of these saintly personalities situated in the graveyard were very often visited by the common people. But not many of these graves have survived the cruel hands of time. Whatever little is left of the decorations both in geometrical patterns as well as in human representation in the shape of carving on yellowish stone is however, remarkable. Human representations on these graves are one of the unique features of the tombs.
The Mausoleum of Shah Baharo is said to have been erected to his memory by Ghulam Shah Kalhora in 1774 A.D Shah Baharo held a military Command under Nur Mohammad Kalhora and died in 1735 A.D. he is credited with having excavated several canals and built some forts. However, there was also a Bahar Shah Faqir who served Bur Mohammad and Ghulam Shah and he was alive in A.H. 1158, when he held and expedition against the Hindus of Kachh who had penetrated into Sindh. The Faqirs were adherents of the Kalhora Chief, and on several occasions, rendered him valuable military services.
A more serious study is required to identify Shah Baharo or Bahar Shah. The two Persian inscriptions fixed in the tomb have already been published in the Archaeological survey of western India Memo No’s, P-11. Throw much light on the history of the monument except the chronogram gives the date of its construction as A.H.1188.
The huge monument crowned with a segmental dome surmounted by a decoration lantern was raised upon a high platform. It was constructed with burnt bricks and was finished with “Pucca Qalai” or “Glazed choona plaster”. The lantern is a very unusual but pleasant feature which improves the look of the monument. It is octagonal in shape and over laid with enameled tiles.
The most important monument of Rohri lies on one of the little hills that rise out of the River Bank. On south there is a level platform on which are many carved grave-stones like those of the Makli Hills at Thatta, with chain ornament and panels of Arabic quotations from the Holy Quran. The whole space between the graves in paved and flight of steps lead up to the platform from the southern side.
Enameled tile work is freely used on these tombs, most of which are dated 1018 to 1301 A.H. that is between 1609 and 1883 A.D. the principal grave is that of Mir Qasim one of the Sabzwari Syed dated 1018 A.D.
This is generally known as the hill of seven virgins from the building on south side called sathain which consist of a row of 2 shallow rooms, connected by a long passage cut partly out of the rock and ornamented externally with colored tiles.
These cells are said to have been occupied by seven virgins, who had taken a vow never to look upon the face of man.
Gori temple situated at a distance of 14 miles north-west of Viravah, is about 125’ by 50 feet and similar is style as in temples at Bodesar. The effects of fire and gun powder which was used by Col. Tyrwhitt at the time of Nagar outbreak are quite marked. Still, it is the best surviving temple here, built of local stone with pillars and details of marble from Rajputana. It consists of three parts viz. an outer stone Mandpa or pavilion with marble pillars and a corbelled dome, leading to an interior Mandapa of similar design but supplemented by small cells. The shrine itself which formerly had a ‘Sikhara’ of typical Kathiawar type is now adorned with rows of miniature ‘Sikharas’. The temple according to an inscription was repaired in 1715 A.D.
The Jaina temple at Verawah is about 15 miles north of Nagar Parkar. The temple is made of stone and consists of an open group of pillars with carved capitals. From this temple was found a beautifully carved block of marble 6’-9” in length and 2’-7” in breadth which is now on display in the National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi.
Mohen Jo daro is located in the Larkano District of Sindh, Pakistan, on a Pleistocene ridge in the middle of the flood plain of the Indus River Valley, around 28 kilometers (17 mi) from the town of Larkano. The ridge was prominent during the time of the Indus Valley Civilization, allowing the city to stand above the surrounding plain, but the flooding of the river has since buried most of the ridge in deposited silt. The site occupies a central position between the Indus River and the Gharr-Hakra River. The Indus still flows to the east of the site. But the riverbed of the Gharr Hakra on the western side is now dry. Mohenjo-Daro was most likely one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization (after Harappa. Another important IVC site, which is located to the north of Mohen Jo daro in Punjab. Pakistan).
The Archaeological Site of Bhanbhore is situated 60 kilometers south-east of Karachi on the bank of Gharo Creek in District Thatto of Sindh province of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
HISTORY: Bhanbhore is an early Islamic Archaeological Site which has a sequence from 1st century BC to 13th Century AD. Whilst its earlier phases are waterlogged, the surface remains of the site represent the best preserved early Islamic urban form in South Asia. It is also the region's best preserved medieval port.
The port's plan consists of five main zones. The most impressive zone is a 10 m high mound which stands on the shore of the creek itself. Measuring 610 m by 305 m, the mound is delineated by a 3 m wide limestone fortification wall with 46 rounded bastions and 3 gates. The latter appears to be connected to a grid iron arrangement of streets. An interior wall divides the mound into western and eastern sectors, with the floor plans of major structures preserved on the surface of the latter half. These largest structures have been identified as a mosque, an administrative quarter and a serai or inn.
The ground plan of its stone-built mosque is particularly well preserved and consisted of a square plane, measuring 34m by 35m with a central open courtyard, surrounded by cloisters. The western cloister formed the prayer hall and its flat roof was supported by 33 wooden pillars, resting on sandstone bases.
There was no trace of a mehrab, but an inscription dating 727 AD (15 years after the conquest of Sindh by Arab General Muhammad Ibn-e-Qasim) indicates that this is the best preserved example of an early mosque in the region, while others having rebuilt. The evidence of the reuse of carved stone from earlier Hindu structures suggests that the site had undergone a major shift in cultural and ritual focus. Beyond the walls there are two substantial but unfortified suburbs to the eastern and the north-eastern corners. There exists a large artificial tank or reservoir — the port's drinking supply — and a large industrial area which stretches along the latter's western edge with evidence of textile processing, glass-making, glazing and metallurgy industries. The presence of the industrial sector and the port's wealth of imported ceramic and metal goods, in combination with its strategic setting at the mouth of the Mighty Indus River, reinforce the pivotal role of Bhanbhore linking the international Indian Ocean traders with the resources of the interior of Sindh/South Asia. Its role ended when the Indus shifted its course in 11th Century AD and the creek silted up, underlying the role that the Nature has played in shaping the heritage.
MUSEUM: An Archaeological Museum is established at the site, where the artifacts so far discovered during the course of excavation are displayed in chronological sequence. These include Pre-Islamic pottery, Umayyad pottery, Abbasid and latter period pottery, Chinese pottery, Unglazed household pottery, Pre-Islamic and Islamic period coins, Minor Antiquities i.e. Sculptures, Inscriptions, Iron, Copper and Ivory objects, etc.
BHANBHORE REST HOUSE: Located very close to the Museum, Bhanbhore Rest House has been beautifully renovated and aesthetically refurbished for accommodation of the tourists and visitors. It has two bed rooms, with drawing and dining rooms, and can accommodate at least four people at a time.
Charges of Rooms:
Double Room: Rs: 1500/= (For 24 hours)
Single Room: Rs: 1000/= (For 24 hours)
(Note: For a shorter stay extending up to 6 hours, 50% of the above rates will be charged.)
Entry to the Archaeological Site & Museum is through the main gate. Booking office and Book Shop are situated at the main entrance.
Archaeological Site & Museum, Bhanbhore are open to public on all seven days of the week, observing the following timings:
SUMMER: 1st April to 30111September 07:30 hrs. to half an hour before Sunset
WINTER: 1st October to 3 1st March 08:30 hrs. to half an hour before Sunset
Adult: Rs. 20/-Children:- 6 to 12 Years Rs. 10/-
Foreigner: - Rs. 300/-Students in Groups are Free
Drinking Water is available near the entrance gate.
Toilets for visitors are located towards West in between Museum and Archaeological Site.
Located on Makli Hills on south of the Archaeological campus at a distance of about five miles are the extensive remains of a ruined fort once known as “Kalan Kot” or Tughlaqabad.
This fort, according to Tarikh-i-Masumi, is said to have been constructed by Mirza Jani Baig somewhere in the last quarter of 16th century A.D. on the site of an earlier fort built by Jam Taghur or Taghlik on the site of a still earlier Hindu Fort. Mirza Jani Baig, while fighting with Emperor Akbar’s troops under Khan Khanan, wrote to his father payndah Baig and his son Abul Fateh who were at Thatta, to construct a fort as a place of refuge, should be abandoned to its fate and they should he be compelled to flee before the enemy. He further desired, under such circumstances, the city of Thatta should be abandoned to its fate and they should take themselves along with the peoples to kalankot. So was done, we are told, and the city of Thatta was laid waste for short duration.
The fort is extensive and appears to be an irregular oblong in plan. The fort was which is about 14½ thick and together with its circular bastions is built with a core of mud bricks lined on either side with a layer of burnt bricks laid in mud mortar. The thickness of this burnt brick lining is about 10 inches.
From the structure remains which are still available on the site, it is quite evident that the entire area of the fort was devided into different sectors each beset with various type of residential buildings. Nothing is left of such a big fort except some dilapidated portion of the fortification wall or ruined bastions. The only conspicuous feature among the remains is is the ruined mosque with a big tank in front of it. The rough extent of the mosque may be taken as 250’x165’ and that of the tank 96’x87’x14’. What remains now of the mosque is the main roofless prayer chamber with its main entrance arch on east thickness of which is 10 feet. The existing height of the walls is about 25 feet. In the mehrab on west there are remain of honey-combed plaster work. The Jambs and spandrels of the upper niches are lined with white/blue glazed tiles the traces of which can still be seen. The floor of the mosque was paved with plain tiles. The main entrance arch of the mosque has been lined with cut and dressed brick tiles laid in mud mortar but the visible joints deeply treated with lime chiroli mortar. A damaged stone pulpit beautifully carved in floral design also occupies the space in NW corner of the mosque. The tank lying in front of the mosque is deeply out in rock lined with bricks laid in lime mortar and finally and finally covered with thick lime plaster.
The Shah Jahan Mosque, also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta, is a 17th century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The mosque was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who bestowed it to the city as a token of gratitude. The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia, and is also notable for its geometric brick work - a decorative element that is unusual for Mughal-period mosques.
The mosque is located in eastern Thatta - the capital of Sindh in the 16th and 17th centuries before Sindh's capital was shifted to nearby Hyderabad. It is located near the Makli Necropolis, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The site is approximately 100 kilometres from Karachi.
The Shah Jahan Mosque's architectural style is overtly influenced by Turkic and Persian styles. The mosque is characterized by extensive brickwork and the use of blue tiles, both of which were directly influenced by Timurid architectural styles from Central Asia − from where the previous rulers of Sindh, the Tarkhans, had hailed before the region was annexed by the Mughals in 1592.
The mosque is famous with its beautiful architecture with red bricks and blue colored glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 100 domes and it is world’s largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end. It has been on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993.
The mosque is a heavy brick structure of simple construction built upon a stone plinth, with heavy square pillars and massive walls, which is centered on a courtyard 169' x 97'. The prayer chamber is of a similar size. Both are covered by large domes. On the north and south two aisled galleries open by means of arcades onto the courtyard. Ninety-three domes cover the entire structure, and are probably the cause of a remarkable echo, which enables the prayers to be heard in any part of the building. The mosque contains the most elaborate display of tile-work in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. The two main chambers, in particular, are entirely covered with them. Their domes have been exquisitely laid with a mosaic of radiating blue and white tiles. Stylish floral patterns have the seventeenth century Kash work of Iran, which decorate the spandrels of the main arches and elsewhere geometrical designs on square tiles are disposed in a series of panels.
There is a vast lawn, foot path and recreational area. The tourists from country and abroad can visit the historical mosque of seventeenth century architecture. The touristic facilities are available at Shah Jehan Restaurant of Sindh Tourism Development Corporation at Thatta.