A complex of five spacious chambers is situated east of the Haram of talpur Mirs in Pucca Fort Hyderabad. The halls were meant for the offices of the Mirs and their treasury was also retained in the same. Each of the halls generally covers an area of 40 feet length and 20 feet width.
The complex was used as land record office since the time of British period and as such the architectural features if any were completely defaced due to renovation work. Mosaic flooring has recently been provided in the complex and all the chambers are white washed.
At present a museum is being organized in these spacious halls, where cultural material belonging to Muslim period sites of objects belonging to previous Muslim rulers of Sindh, of Talpur dynasty would also be exhibited.
Mir Haram is another simple but impressive building situated inside the Pucca Fort, Hyderabad. It was built by the Talpur Mir’s for their residence. Mir Haram built on 7.5 meter high solidly built podium. The interior of the Haram is profusely decorated with fresco paintings, though of degenerated quality.
Area: 6.36 Acres
The tombs of Talpur Mirs have been built since the British conquest. From an architectural point of view they are conspicuously inferior to those of Kalhoras. For some time these tombs were maintained by their families. The oldest of them is that attributed to Mir Karam Ali, one of the original “char yar” and said to have been built about 1812. Mir Karam Ali died in customary for a man to build his own tomb. Another of the four friends, his sons Nur Muhammad and Nasir Khan and his grandson Shahdad Khan. The last two were concerned in Miani and were prisoners at the date assigned for the building of this tomb, 1847 A.D. but it may have been erected over the grave of Murad Ali by the female members of the family who did not go into exile.
A very high tower was built inside Pucca Fort, Hyderabad, in the past, which may have been used as gun post or it may have served as a watch tower in the period of Talpur Mirs. Later on when the fort was demilitarized, the tower was modified and converted into a water reservoir, which still is utilized for the same purpose.
Area: 142.22 Acres
Hingoro road Goaro is situated eighteen miles east of Hyderabad Sindh near the village Tando Fazal. The site is not easily approachable. There is a regular bus service from Hyderabad to Makhan Mohri which is twelve miles from Hyderabad. From Makhan Mohri there starts a zigzag desert route which leads to Hingoro Road – distant six miles from Mahan Mohri. Only jeep can go easily upto the site.
The existing site of Hingoro Road covers an area of about one square mile. Manyy unscientific diggings have been made at various places which have spoiled the original feature of the site. It contains now a few ruined buildings and several fragments of high walls scattered all over the site which indicate that there had been a number of magnificent buildings here in the days or its splendor.
A grand mosque built of old types of bricks and plastered with lime. It contains a large prayer chamber by three domes, the interior of which is ornamented with floral designs. The area of the chamber measure 46’-9”x18’ from inside. The width of its eastern wall is 3 feet and that of northern and southern walls is 4’-6”. There are three aches in the western wall near the ‘minbar’. These are adorned with floral designed tiles. The wall also contains three entrances – the central one being 7’-6’ wide while the eastern are only 3’.6” wide. The northern and southern wall possesses one door – above the each door kalimah-i-Tayyaba is inscribed in elegant naksh style on the wall.
It is interesting to note that the northern wall of the prayer chamber is supplied with a stair-case which has been adjusted skillfully within the space of the wall.
The mosque also contains a vast courtyard but its boundary walls have been ruined. Only the fragments of the eastern wall are extant.
There is a vast open space (with diggings at several spots) adjacent to the mosque in the north, surrounded by high walls with window, remains of additional chambers, and a square Hujrah with one door on each side. It is roofed by a single dome and is in good condition. These remains clearly indicate that a good “Madrassa” was attached to the mosque.
At a distance of about for furlongs from the Grand Mosque and on a heap about 30 feet high from the present level of the ground exists another mosque with a prayer chamber only. No other portion of it is noticeable at mosque. Even the interior decoration resembles that of the former. There is slight difference of course as regards the area of the chamber and width of the wall. The main entrance of the prayer chamber has been blocked by later brick masonry not known for what chamber has been blocked.
A single domed tomb, plastered with lime contains only one entrance. The interior of the tomb is lavishly decorated with floral designs resembling with the decoration of the mosques. It is square built measuring 11’.3” x 11’.3”.
A close study of these monuments show that the tomb indeed had been a magnificent one in its prime. It most probably belonged to the period of Mir rulers of Sindh.
Area: 0.28 Acre
Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro was the famous king of the Kalhora Dynasty that ruled Sindh from 1701 to 1783. He was given the title Khudayar Khan by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. About half a mile towards south from Nabi Khan’s tomb lies the tomb of Sarfraz Khan Kalhoro in a hallow below the hill. Sarfraz Khan Kalhoro was murdered in cold blood by order of his uncle Mian Ghulam Nabi Khan. From an architectural point of view the building is very plain and of little note.
The largest group of factory sites is in the Rohri Hills in upper Sindh. The Rohri Hills would be better described as a dissected limestone plateau than a hill range. Situated in the intensely arid region of upper Sindh they cover an area measuring some 40 km from north to south and 16 km from east to west.
The site of Lakhanjo-Daro, located beneath modern Sukkur, Pakistan is one of the most important urban centers of the Indus Civilization and yet it has not been properly studied due to its location under a modern city that is rapidly expanding. This site was first discovered in 1985 and small-scale excavations and surveys were carried out by the faculty and students of Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur (Kazi 1985). Larger scale excavations were carried out by the same department in 2006 and then again during 2009/10 (Shaikh et al 2006, Mallah et al 2012). Due to various factors, it has not been possible to carry out more intensive horizontal excavations or long-term research on any single part of the site. Nevertheless, based on excavations in three different areas, two locations in the central mound and one in the western mound, it is clear that the ancient settlement of Lakhanjo-Daro is extremely large and spread over a vast area. Furthermore the artifacts recovered from the excavations, such as pottery, inscribed seals and figurines, are very similar to those found at other major cities of the Indus Valley region.
The central mounds have evidence for residential quarters and the western mound has considerable evidence for a wide range of craft activities as well as major habitation and architectural structures. The eastern mound also has remains of habitation areas but this part of the mound has been badly disturbed by modern construction and is partly covered with modern garbage. Due to the removal of large amounts of the site for modern construction purposes, almost all of the architectural features from the uppermost habitation deposits that were once visible in the western mounds have been destroyed and are no longer present. There are however well preserved remains of architecture, in situ pottery and craft activity areas in the lower levels. The areas that were available for salvage archaeology in 2013 and 2017 have demonstrated that this part of the ancient site was an important area for craft production, specifically the manufacture of steatite beads and seals.
Although the 2013 and 2017 projects were salvage excavations, the trenches that were excavated were thoroughly documented to define the disturbed upper layers and the undisturbed occupation deposits. Based on the pottery found along with craft debris from steatite manufacture it is clear that the site was occupied during the Harappa Phase as defined at the site of Harappa, which is well dated to around 2600-1900 BCE (Dales and Kenoyer 1990, 1992, Kenoyer 1993, Meadow and Kenoyer 1994, 2005, Kenoyer and Meadow1999). In one of the excavation areas a deep trench was excavated up to two meters below the current surface of the site. In the lowest part of this deep excavation pottery that is similar to the Early Harappan, Kot Diji Phase has been recovered (Kenoyer 2000) (see below for more details). Further expanded excavations are needed to determine if this is a chance discovery or if there is an Early Harappan occupation at the site. It should be noted that the lower levels of the citadel mound at Mohenjo-Daro have confirmed evidence for Early Harappan occupation (Kenoyer 2014:415). Early Harappan occupations are also confirmed at the sites of Harappa (Kenoyer and Meadow 2000:55-76), Dholavira (Bisht 2015, Prabhakar et al 2012, Law 2015) and Rakhigarhi (Nath et al 2015) so it is not surprising to find an Early Harappan occupation in the lower levels of Lakhanjo-Daro.
In 2017 four major trenches were opened to check the nature of cultural deposits and in all of the trenches the upper levels were disturbed by recent construction activities. There are also some deeper pits from recent local inhabitants that have resulted in mixing of modern garbage with ancient artifacts deep below the surface. Only a few excavation areas revealed in-situ undisturbed pottery set in the ground and eroded remains of walls made from packed clay. The excavation areas were laid out in 10 x 10 meter squares designated using the letters A to E. Two of these areas were expanded in order to follow wall lines and further expose deposits with in-situ remains. In the course of the 2017 excavation a very large volume of diagnostic Harappan phase artifacts were collected, including steatite and hard stone beads, terra cotta and shell bangles, plain and painted Harappan pottery, miniature pots and large jars, terracotta cakes and baked lumps, cones, and so on. The objects were manufactured from wide array of materials like terracotta, stone, copper, white-fired steatite and marine shell.
The walls of the small rooms were made from compact clay and not the normal mold made mud bricks. This unique feature needs to be further studied as it is not a common feature, though it has been documented at other sites such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. The floors of the rooms were made from compact soil mixed with fine debris and in some rooms and open spaces there is evidence for hearths and dumps of ashy soil. Debris from steatite and faience manufacture is found scattered throughout the area and consists of glassy or vitrified slag, burned bone with glaze, fragments of kiln walls and white fired tiles used in the kilns. Large amounts of steatite manufacturing waste included unfired blocklets and sawn fragments of steatite, thin sawn wafers, perforated and partly chipped or ground bead blanks, and white fired steatite beads. Many of the white fired steatite beads were embedded in the vitrified slags and firing containers. The types of objects recovered from this excavation confirm that this part of the ancient city was a major production area for steatite, and since these levels are significantly below the ones excavated in 2013, it appears that the production continued for a long period of time.
In addition to steatite bead making there is evidence for sawn blocklets that were used for making seals. Three unfinished steatite seals were recovered from the excavations. Seal making would have been carefully controlled by elite merchants and rulers of the city, as they were important for trade and economic exchanges. The raw steatite used in both bead and seal production includes many different shades of brown and grey-black steatite. The initial analysis of some samples obtained in the 2013 excavation suggests that some of the steatite was probably coming from steatite mines located as far north as modern Hazara, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. There are also steatite sources in Baluchistan and Rajasthan, and it is possible that multiple sources were used to obtain raw materials, but this can only be determined through further studies.
Moomal Ji Mari is situated in Village Mathelo, 8 miles south west of Ghotki town in Sukkur District. Mathelo is an ancient village situated on a high mound covering an area of about 15 acres. On about 12 acres out of this area are built the houses and huts of villagers and the remaining 3 acres lying in south west corner of the village is un-occupied mound. This mound is believed to represent the Moomal Ji Mari (Multi-Storey building of Moomal). It stands about 50 feet high of the ground level and is almost vertical at ends. In the old cutting of the sides can been seen traces of old Hindu bricks. The pottery collected from the surface included both glazed and unglazed types but the latter type with a significant ration of stamped were dominated. The few glazed sherds represented no form and belong to crude type.
Area: 7.24 Acres
This is a group of Mound three of even four in number. They lie north-west to the village Dhamrao, six miles from Badah Railway station on Badah-Mehar Kucha road and are easily accessible by means of a tonga engaged from Badah Railway station.
The mound of this group are almost circular in plan and conical in shape. It is strewn with potsherds and old brick-bats to the extent that it gives pottery colour view from a distance. Local population use it for obtaining brick-bats some of which are of cut and smoothened bricks such as it is observed in the construction of the Great Bath at moenjodaro.
The rest of the mounds which occupy an extensive area are also covered with potsherds but brickbats seldom seen over them. The mound in the extreme north-west is the highest.
Area: 0.6 Acre
The square tower locally known as Miranjo tower is situated 15 kilometers north-east of Taluka and District headquarters of Larkana and about 2 kilometers from village Dhamrao. It is about 25 feet high having facing of burnt bricks measuring 8”x4”x1½ “. A stair case leads up to the top of the tower.
The tower on the whole is not in a good state of preservation. The burnt brick facing is lying damaged from place to place. Besides, the staircase has also fallen down and only its traces are visible.
The Tajjar building a small but an impressive brick structure 42’x42’ is located close to the south east of Town Hall inside the Jinnah Bagh at Larkana. It consists of 3 apartments, a central hall 14’x38’ with two side galleries each measuring 8’x38’. At the time of its construction the building was test fully decorated with glazed tile work and floral fresco paintings, the traces of which were found out.
The Tajjar building by the passage of time fell victim to the human hands and underwent many additions and alterations striping of its, all original grandeur. Giles, Commissioner of Sindh, set up library in this building in the year 1864 A.D. which later on followed by the creation of a local broad-casting station. Also the building was used as a canteen for a considerable time.
Few specimen of stone plinth, wood and mosaic required for future conservation bring the monument back to its own old glary were collected from the contemporary Mirs tombs at Hyderabad and got approved from the Chairman, Pakistan National Centre, Islamabad.
Area: 33.98 Acres
Jukhar mounds are situated on the right side of the road just opposite the Allied Textile Mills. The mounds at Jukhar of great archaeological and historical importance, which have yielded remains from the period of Mohenjodaro down to the 5th century A.D.
These mounds however, are not so extensive as Mohenjodaro.
The site is located just north of present day village of Wahi Pandhi, near Nari Nai. The prehistoric site is situated on a gravel terrace above the flooding of the torrential.