The present town and Fort of Hyderabad were founded by the Kalhora chief Mian Ghulam Shah in A.H. 1182 (A.D. 1768), who made it his capital. In 1789 Mir Fateh Ali Khan, the then ruling Talpur Chief, abandoning khudabad near Hala, also made it his residence and constructed buildings within the Fort for his own accommodation and that of his relations. Some mosques were also built inside the fort during the period of Kalhoras and Talpurs. The building within the Fort of Mir period with which most of its area was crowded, were nearly all cleared away by the British in 1857, who for sometime used the place for the accommodation of troops military stores, and as an arsenal. The crest of the fortification walls is decorated with ornamental Kanguras, or merlons, of a very curious shape. In one of corner of the Fort, there is a memorial to be native soldier who so very bravely faced the British attack on the Fort in (A.D. 1843). Mir’s Harm and a few odd walls in the buildings known as record office are the only other remnants of the Mir’s period. Mir’s Harm as apparent from the name is a part of the ladies quarters. It is profusely decorated with painting though not of good taste.
The tomb of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhora, the founder of Hyderabad, is one of the most important monuments of the city and represents the typical architecture of Kalhora’s period. The tomb was constructed in 1772 A.D. by his son Sarfraz Khan Kalhora and was in a very sound condition of preservation till its dome gave way.
During the first decade of this century it dome fell down, probably through settlement of its foundation. The tomb is a great massive structure standing upon a square platform and surrounded by a massive wall in a fortress shape. The whole of the exterior of the tomb was covered with glazed colored tiles in great variety of geometric and floral patterns but now badly damaged. The interior of the buildings has been painted elaborately and deep band of color glazed tiles runs around the walls. A great deal of the decorated surface is made up of medallion, panels and bands.
A stair care in the thickness of the wall leads to the terraced roof. The low parapet wall which runs round the edge of platform upon which the building stands is constructed of thin slabs of perforated stone, supported by little pillars at intervals. The perforated patterns are very neat and pretty.