The most outstanding monuments built at Sukkur during the Mughal period is the high minaret of Mir Masum. In excellence it may be compared with those at Delhi, Ahmadabad and Daulatabad. The construction of the minaret was started in 1595 A.D. by Mir Muhammad Masum, a prominent figure of Mughal period, but was completed by his son, Mir Buzurg in 1618 A.H. he was a famous scholar, poet calligraphist historian and brave soldier.
Born at Sukkur-Bhakkar in A.H.944 Mir Masum assumed the poetical title of ‘Nami’ and was the writer of the history of Sindh called after him the Tarikh-e-Masumi, which he complied in A.H.1009 (1600 A.D.). Impressed by his great qualities and services. Emperor Akbar awarded him large jagirs in the surrounding areas of Sukkur. In 1606 A.D., he was bestowed with the title of Amin-ul-Malk by Emperor Jahangir.
Built of burnt bricks, Mir Masum’s Minaret is about one hundred feet high and eighty-four in circum-ference at the base. It provides a magnificent view of the surrounding area from its top. It is surmounted by a dome to which access is provided by an internal stair-case.
An oblong stone slab bearing an inscription in Persian is laid at the entrance of the minaret, which indicates the date of its construction.
Close to the Mir Masum’s minaret here are several open stone canopies supported upon square, flat and octagonal stone pillars, whose shafts are covered with Persian writings in relief and other decorative tracery. There are honey-combed designs on the ceilings of the tomb. The raves of Mir Masum, his father Mir Safai and his other family members are located under the canopies. The canopies bear several inscriptions in Persian and verses from the Holy Quran. The inscription on the grave of Mir Masum indicates his date of demise as A.H.1014 (1605-6 A.D.).
The tomb of Mian Nur Muhammad Kalhora is situated about 9 kilometers towards west of Moro town in District Nawabshah. The approach to the tomb which is through a metal led road is fairly good except for a portion of one furlong just near the tomb which is “Katcha”. The tomb has a rectangular walled enclosure which has a single domed entrance in the centre of the eastern wall. The wall which is nearly 8 feet high has regular arched recessed panels on the interior and exterior.
The tomb is located on a raised platform measuring 80’x70’ in the western part of the walled enclosure. The foundation of the tomb up to dado level is raised with stone while the supper-structure is constructed with bricks and later embellished with kasha tiles in geometric and floral designs. Rectangular in shape which measuring 48’ by 45’, the tomb is 57 feet high. It has a gallery at squinch level and four octagonal kiosks on the roof. Internally, the plan of the tomb is octagonal in shape. The sixteen sided drum, supporting the hemispherical dome, has eight arched clerestory windows.
Area: (555 Acres)
There is a grand Buddhist Stupa at the ancient site of Moenjodaro. It rises about feet above the surrounding area measuring from the first pavement to the base of the drum; the height of the plinth is 20 feet which is unusually lofty for stupa of such dimension. The approach to it lies in the middle of its eastern side. There is a small image-chapel attached to it. The image-niche measures 7 feet deep by a 4 feet 6 inches wide and occupies a prominent position. Some fragments of a sculpture of the Buddha seated cross-legged were found.
The dome of the stupa has long since disappeared and what is left is the lower part of the circular drum which is still standing to a height of 8 feet about the plinth. This drum, the full diameter of which appears to be about 33 feet is hallow in the centure and composed of sun-dried bricks laid in mud mortar. It was dug out by the villagers to a depth of 14 feet in hope of recovering he hidden treasure. From the debris of this digging some pieces of relic caskets, fragments of images etc. were found during the excavation executed by the Department of Archaeology.
The stupa was built by the old material of Indus Valley civilization.
There is a grand Buddhist Stupa at the Mohenjodaro.
The ruins of the city remained undocumented for around 3,700 years until R. D. Banerji, an officer of the Archaeological Survey of India, visited the site in 1919–20, identifying the Buddhist stupa (150–500 CE) known to be there and finding a flint scraper which convinced him of the site's antiquity.
Quaid-e-Azam House Muuseum is situated at the crossing of Shahrah-e-Faisal and Fatima Jinnah Road is a gorgeous yellow stone double storeyed building in the middle of a Vast open piece of land which is popularly known as the Flag Staff House.
History: The house build in plot No.241, Staff Lines, Karachi Cantonment, the House was purchased by Quaid-i-Azam for Rs.1,15,000/- with a down payment of Rs.5,000/-. The sale agreement was made on 14th August, 1943 with Mr. Sorab Kavasji Katrak, a former Mayor of Karachi. At that time the house was shown as being situated at Bonus Road, an extension of Elphinstone Street which are now called Fatima Jinnah Road and Zaib-un-Nisa Street respectively.
It is not known when this house was built, except that it was in the fading year of the 19th century. Available records show that until 1922 the owner was Mr. Ramachand Hansraj Kutchi Lohana. The house was later obtained on rent by the British Indian Army. From 1940 onward, Brig, Hartwell, Major Gen. C. Durnfort, Maj. Gen. N.G. Hind and Gen. Douglas D. Gracy who later became the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Pakistan Army have resided here.
Obviously, from 1943 onward, these army commanders were tenants of the new owner. Rent receipts have been retrieved which show addressed to Quaid-i-Azam (between January and April of 1947) by the then General Officer Commanding, Lt. Gen. D.D. Gracy. The one dated 18th April, 1947 is interesting.
In September, 1947 a month after the creation of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam's personal belongings were transferred to Flag Staff House from his house at 10-Aurangzeb Road, New Delhi, where he had lived during the intense political activities leading to independence from British rule.
At the time of sale to Quaid-i-Azam, the Flag Staff House was owned jointly by Mr. Sorab Kavasji Katrak, his wife Mrs. Dina Sorab Kavasji Katrak and daughters Virbaiji, Khorshedbai and Parinbai. In the Deed of Sale, Mr. and Mrs. Katrak and their eldest daughter, virbaiji, were shown as the trustees duly registered under an Indenture of Trust dated 31st May, 1931. It was from these Trustees that Cantonment Board the had rented the house for residential use of the rental as being Rs.435.50. there are letters army to brass.
The Quaid, Mr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, did not get time to live in this house, there is no authentic record as would show when he visited this place but there are otherwise reliable traditions indicating that he visited this house quite often.
After his demise, his sister and political companion, Mohtarma Fatima, Jinnah, who had lived with him in the Governor General House, moved in Flag Staff House on 13th September, 1948. She lived here until 1964 where from she shifted to her own house, the "Mohatta Palace" (Qasre-i-Fatima), in Clifton. The Madir-i-Millat, Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah, died on 9th July, 1967. A commission was set up, by a Presidential Decree, to identify the Quaid's personal belongings of historical significance. The identified relics found in poor state were scientifically treated and restored for public display.
With the death of Quaid-i-Azam's last surviving sister Shirinbai, responsibility of Flag Staff House reverted to the reconstituted "Quaid-i-Azam Trust", comprising Mr. Hashim Raza and Mr. Liaquat Merchant. From these Trustees the Rs.51,07,000/- by a Deed signed on 14th February, 1985. Restoration and renovation work was taken in hand earlier on le June, 1984 and the Quaid-i-Azam House, as it is now named, has been declared open to public 25th November, 1993. Spread on 10,241 sq.yds. the building itself is not too large. There are three rooms on the ground floor and three rooms in the first. Two exterior rooms are 16 feet 10 inches wide. The same dimensions are of the rooms on the first floor, each with openings to the verandah. There is an annexe, which is now converted into an auditorium-cum-exhibition hall for debates, educational lectures, audio-visual shows etc.
There were also 18 out-houses, 4 garages, 3 guard rooms and a kitchen which have now been converted into the administrative offices.
The structure is built in lime-stone masonry with wooden trusses supporting the roof. Red ceramic Manglore tiles are used at the top to cover the roof. The staircase is all wooden and is in dark brown color. Beautifully colored tiles are used at the ground floor and wooden planks are used on the first as floor covering.
Each room is decorated with those relics which Quaid-i-Azam used during his lifetime. A finely carved cigarette box of good quality sandalwood is one of the antiques now placed in the house. A big camphorwood box which is skillfully carved on the sides is also placed in the bedroom on the first floor. The sofa sets are preserved in their original form. The study room consists of a reading table, chairs, table lamp and some stationery items. A resting sofa is placed at on corner of the room. The shelves made of wood and fine quality glass are decorated with high standard crockery which were used by the Quaid-i-Azam.
The Quaid-i-Azam House is now renovated. It is centrally air-conditioned and there is a full fledged fire extinguishing unit. Other facilities include burglar alarm system, close circuit TV and film projection facility.
The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan and Public Works Department jointly prepared a comprehensive scheme for the renovation and restoration of the Quaid-i-Azam House. The scheme was approved by the Government of Pakistan for an estimated cost of Rs.18.666 Million. The approved scheme envisaged the following items of works.
1: Cost of the Acquisition of House.
2: Protective works like termite control and moisture resistant treatment.
3: Complete Renovation/Restoration of Building.
4: Re-electrification of the House.
5: Central Air Conditioning of the House and Annexe.
6: Conversion of Annexe into an Auditorium and Projection Room.
7: Provision for security arrangements like fire alarms and fire fighting systems.
8: Landscaping and development of house garden and lawns.
9: Setting up of House Museum. Purchase of Quaid's relics where ever available.
The Pakistan P. W. D. was assigned the major items of works as at b-h above and Department of Archaeology and Museums was made responsible for i and j above. Mrs. Yasmin Lari an outstanding Architect of Karachi was appointed as Consultant Architect to supervise the entire work of Quaid-i-Azam House.
THE MAIN HOUSE:
The main House has been completely renovated and restored but its general character or profile has been maintained intact. Only the roof of ground floor was changed and laid in cement concrete but was provided by refixing the false wooden ceiling and wooden floor on top similar to the original design, using almost 80% old material. The roof over the 1s1 Floor has been done according to its original plan and finished with red clay tiles. On the exterior, missing and damaged portions of columns baluster and baluster and balconies have been restored to match the original style and color. Damaged stone members of the building have been replaced with new ones to strengthen the structure. The main building has been made centrally Air Conditioned and concealed electric wiring has also been provided with old original style fittings. All electric controls have been placed in two control rooms where fire alarm systems will also he monitored.
The Annexe originally consisted of four small rooms with a verandah provided access to the rooms. The flat concrete lintels in the verandah indicate that it was added at some later date. The dividing walls of the rooms have now been removed to provide a large Hall to serve as an Auditorium and Projection Room. The verandah has been retained which opens towards the front garden. Though the roof has been changed, it follows the original profile of the slopping roof and has been finished with clay tiles.
The roof profile and clay tiles finish has been maintained according to the original construction. The front verandah has also been maintained as in the original building. The Out House have been converted into reserves, offices, library etc.
A small library, containing books about Quaid-i-Azam and Freedom Movement has been established in July, 2003 to facilitate visiting Schollars and Students.
Garden in front and in the back of the Quaid-i-Azam House has been redesigned to serve the requirement of Museum visitors. It has been laid after due repairs and restoration of water supply system. A number of lights have been provided in the garden for security and also for its use on special occasions.
Area 198' x 17'
The Frere Hall is the most notable building in Karachi. The hall was constructed in 1863, to commemorate the long and brilliant administration of Sir Bartle Frere when he was called to the viceroy’s Council in 1859. A sum of Rs. 22,500 was raised by subscription and the design of the building was prepared by Lieutenant Colonel St. Clair Wilson. The hall is in the Venetian Gothic style with an octagonal tower crowned with an iron cage and an acute roof spire let. It is built of the familiar yellowish Karachi limestone, relieved very effectively by white colite quarried near Bholari south of Kotri and red sandstones from jungshahi. The columns and arches of the wide verandahs are exceedingly graceful and the whole detail pleasing. The apex of the spire let is 144 feet above ground level. From the perch on to east side a double staircase leads up directly to a fine hall in the upper storey, which is 70 feet long by 35 in width and 38 in height. It has wide verandahs on its two sides and opens at the north and by an arch. On the ground floor, there is a main hall equal to the one above.
(Plot: 1215M, Plot 2233M)
The Khaliq Dina Hall was erected on Bunder Road in Karachi and opened in 1906. There is one spacious hall for public meetings and two rooms. The rooms according to the agreement were put at the disposal of the committee of the native General Library. The hall was 70 feet in length and 45 feet broad. The height was 30 feet.
The hall could seat 600-700 persons. The front portion had an area of 525 by 325 feet.
The two-storey building of Wazir Mansion is of colonial period standing solemnly on New Neham Road (now Haji Sharif Balwani Road), off M.A. Jinnah Road (Old Bunder Road) near Meriwether Tower, Kharadar, Karcahi. It was built some where during 1860 to 1870 with stone masonry in lime and jute mortar to suit the volatile weather of Karachi. The parents of Quaid-i-Azam Mr. Jinnah Bhai Ponja and Sakina Bano (Mithi Bai) were moved to Karachi after 1874 from their ancestral village Paneli (now in Gujrat, Bharat) to Karachi and acquired an apartment at First Floor in this building. It was an auspicious day of 25th December, 1876 when the founder of our homeland i.e. Pakistan and the greatest Muslim Leader of 20th Century was born in this house. When Mr. Quaid-i-Azam left for London in 1892 for higher studies, his parents and siblings were still residing in this house. Quaid-i-Azam came back to Karachi from England in 1896. In 1898 the whole family moved to Bombay. Mr.Gowardhan Das was also among the owners of this building; from him Mr. Wazir Ali Ponawala (by whom this house had got its name “Wazir Mansion”) bought it at some point during 1940s.
In 1953 The Government of Pakistan bought this historic building from Mr.Wazir Ali and protected it under “Ancient Monument Preservation Act, 1904” (later on Antiquities Act, 1975) and Pakistan Public Works Department (P.W.D.) was assigned the work of its renovation and conservation. After completion of urgent and necessary repairs Wazir Mansion was handed over to the Department of Archaeology & Museums, Government of Pakistan on 13th August, 1953 for its proper upkeep and maintenance. The Birth Place Museum was formally inaugurated by the then Governor General of Pakistan on 14th August 1953. The Department of Archaeology & Museums, Government of Pakistan established a Reading Room and a Library on its Ground Floor and a Museum on its 1st Floor, where the relics associated with Quaid-i-Azam were put on view. In order to enhance its importance Government of Pakistan declared Wazir Mansion a “National Monument” and renamed it as Quaid-i-Azam Birth Place. The 2nd Floor Gallery was opened in 1982 when some articles belonging to Quaid-i-Azam were collected from Mohtarma Shereen Jinnah (the sister of Quaid-i-Azam) by the Quaid’s Relics Commission.
In 2004 a Project of Evaluation, Strengthening, Preservation, Rehabilitation, Bringing back to its original form, Presentation and Up-gradation of Quaid-i-Azam Birth Place (Wazir Mansion) was started by the Department of Archaeology & Museums, Government of Pakistan with approved cost of 25.037 million rupees. The Project completed in 2010. Now the Museum is consisted of three-storeys; a ground floor with a Library and a reading hall, two museum galleries on 1st & 2nd Floors and a Custodian’s office and two washrooms on 3rd Floor;
The First Gallery:
It is located on 1st Floor. It has been divided into three rooms; the first room where the Quaid was born while in the second and third room the articles belonged to the Father of the Nation are displayed, which he used as the First Governor General of Pakistan 14th August, 1947-11th September, 1948) They include a cabinet chair (used by Quaid-i-Azam while presiding over the meetings of the cabinet), office chair, large number of law books, writing chair, dressing table, side tables, cushioned sofa set, rugs and a bed where he breathed his last.
The Second Gallery:
It is situated on 2nd Floor. There are nine show cases in which the articles related to Quaid-i-Azam such as; a manuscript copy of Holy Qur’an, furniture, monocle in a leather case, a pair of tortoise shell spectacles, an Emerson radio, smoking pipe, welcome addresses, a silver lock & key, perfume box, a cigarette case, Chinese vase, china jug, writing pad, table clock, walking stick, Muslim League Badges, dresses and a number of other objects are put on display.
Since 5th April, 2011 this monument of national importance has been devolved to the Directorate of Archaeology & Museums Sindh, Department of Culture, Antiquities and Tourism, Government of Sindh under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
This graveyard is situated in Malir district Karachi, located near Memon Goth in Goth Hashim Jokhio. The Baluch Tombs graveyard was developed by those who were roaming in Maheer area. It came into existence when the earlier non-regular graves, scattered in that area attained uniformity of design. This acquisition of uniform features initiated the artisan in an art form which went on to develop greatly.
Later, the Kalmati Maliks while expanding their influence shifted their seat of power to this area and were buried here. This fact must have ushered in the need of grandeur to be depicted in stone. The graveyard shows its emergence; the structure acquired chambers and was enriched with exquisite carving, perfectly rendered.
The neighbouring Chaukandi graveyard seems to have followed the mature structure; there is hardly any evidence to suggest that the formative period practice was ever carried over in this graveyard. The crude graves are abruptly replaced with the mature classical structures. Very few intervening cut arch and early classical graves could be found. The late classical and early Transit periods is richly represented here. Both these graveyards were enriched greatly during classical and late classical periods as is said, due to rivalry between Kalmati and Jokhia tribes.
In Baluch Tombs, classical and common chamber graves have many Kalmati Maliks buried underneath. Minimum variation in the design indicates towards possibility of construction of these graves within a limited span of time. The archaeological evidence is credited with a tradition that tells about the outbreak of an epidemic in the area, which claimed several lives. The similar construction of these graves denotes nearness in time. As the story goes, due to the then epidemic "Small Pox", Maliks also died one after the other; popular imagination has correlated that incident with the curse of a holy man, who was denied of a favour.
Tutai Chaukandi, the Chaukandi of Malik Tuta, is generally believed to have been constructed in the same time span as was the one constructed over Jam Mureed bin Haji. At least the Jokhias believe as such. But the Kalmatis have a clear indication in one of the incidence that it was Malik Zardar, who caused the Chaukandi to be erected over Tuta's grave. According to the tradition, Malik Zardar, in response to a sarcastic remark, vowed to construct a stone-carved grave along with the Chaukandi over his uncle. This makes it clear that the Tuta Chaukandi is at least fifty years earlier than the one at Chaukandi graveyard. Similar structures are found at Mandiari and Tonda, but are, unfortunately in ruins. A closer look at these may reveal some useful information. The mode of construction of these Chaukandi is visibly the same; set over a square platform, pillars positioned in circle proudly carry somewhat conical dome.
Tombs at Chaukundi Graveyard- Karachi Chaukundi tombs are situated at a distance of 29 km (18 miles) in the east on N-5 National Highway near Landhi Town, Karachi. The Chaukhandi tombs are remarkable for the elaboration and exquisite stone carving. The style of graves architecture is typical, which only exists in Sindh. That style is found no where else in the Islamic countries.
That type of construction of graveyard is unique due to its orientation from south to north. The graves are constructed in buff sandstone. The carved decoration' presents exquisite craftsmanship. Those graves are constructed either as single graves or in a group. More or less a number of eight graves had been raised on a single common platform.
Structurally, primary sarcophagus has six vertical slabs, with two long slabs standing on each side of the grave covering the length of the body and the remaining two vertical slabs covering the head and foot side. All of those six slabs are covered by a second sarcophagus consisting of six more vertical slabs similarly. But, in size, it gives the grave a pyramid shape. The upper (second sarcophagus) is further covered with four or five horizontal slabs and the topmost (third) sarcophagus is set vertically with its northern end carved into a knob known as a 'crown' or turban. The tombs are embellished besides geometrical designs and motifs, with figural representations such as mounted horsemen, hunting scenes, arms, jewellery etc.
There are various opinions as to the meaning of the word Chaukhandi. Some scholars believed that Chaukhandi is the name of a place. Others take it to be an architectural term. On the type site of 'Chaukhandi', there is the tomb of Jam Murid bin Hail, which contains the word 'Chaukhandi', after the name of the deceased, which provides sufficient witness of that place. Banerji visited the Chaukhandi graveyard in 1920. He referred it as "the little village Chaukhandi". According to Sindhi language, 'Chaow' means 'four' and 'Kundi' means 'corner'. Chaukhandi thus refers to the four corners (angles) construction, supporting the umbrella shaped dome over the tomb and would apply to all tombs having the same construction. However, all the tombs covered with umbrella shaped domes or with a rectangular pavilion at Chaukhandi have more than four pillars or columns - an angular building construction.
In year 1922, the Chowkundi tombs near Landhi were brought with the pale of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, 1904.
Khairpur is a large district of Sindh with several historical sites & monuments; the fort of KOTDIJI is one of them.
The former ruler of Khairpur state Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur founded three forts to safeguard the frontiers of his rule. Those were "Shah Garh", towards Jodhpur - Jaisalmer, "Imam Garh" in the Thar region & "Qilla Ahmedabad" in capital town of Kotdiji.
This 19th century Talpur era fort is situated about 25 km north wards of district head quarter Khairpur in Kotdiji town was built between 1785-95.
This magnificent fort made from klin baked bricks sits atop about 110 ft. high semi-circular lime stone hillock. Its walls are 30 ft. high from surface level encompassing the upper most portion of the fort resulting a narrow width fortress with perimeter of 1.8 kms.
Kotdiji fort has its main entrance on the east placed at 90° saving it against any raiding enemy. It's 13 ft. high & 10ft wide strong door was made by joining big wooden logs having 234 iron spikes fixed in it.
After passing through a curved narrow ascending path comes the second gate. It's .... ft high having... Iron spikes fixed.
The main portion of this fort is beyond third & last gate locally known as "Shahi Darwazo" (The Royal gate).
The Kotdiji fort was solely designed & built for defence purpose. It was well equipped to offer fool proof security & encounter any invasion. Besides commander's house it contained inside the supporting bastions, watch towers, ammunition depot, Mir's Haram, Pavilion for holding Darbar/ court and cells or Barracks soldiers rank wize.
The fort possesses fifty strategically erected bastions for placement of small & big cannons as well as keep vigilant eye over enemy movement. In order to keep an identity according to their situation the bastions were named so for. A bastion/ Burj besides Shahi Darwazo was named as "Fateh Thul" (Victory Tower) It was so strategically constructed that from this point most of the fort either above or below is in close eye contact of the commander, for proper security check. The other bastions were named as" Saffan Saffa", " Mulk Maidan", Mariam Burj, Jaisalmeri Burj & Shaheed Badshah Burj. Four big cannons were placed on them standing to each direction.
Facing the Shahi Darwazo there are two roofs less rooms. Amongst them one served as food commodity store & the other one used to be lamp godown. The prominent room having small square holes in the walls were once used as lamp godown of the fort where the clay & glass lamps were kept, cleaned & fuel filled for every cell. In front of it is water pond like place about 4 mtr deep, measuring around 11 mtr long & 7 mtr wide. Pillars standing inside & post holes indicate its past roofing. It was ammuni-tion depot of the fort where light weapons & gun powder was stored.
One of the fascinating feature of this fort is a sand stone made "Pavilion". Its beautifully carved arches & the platform attract the visitors eye immediately. The than ruler of the state used to grace a court or Darbar & issue some important order on special occasions.
After British invasion the administrative offices were shifted to Khairpur. Hence forth the importance of Kotdiji fort was gradually declined. In the circumstances it was converted into a central prison where notorious criminals of the area & from native States were jailed. In 1955, after merger of Khairpur state with Pakistan this fort was handed over to Government by the last ruler Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur II. As a result of 18th Constitutional amendment this historical monument came under the custody of Government of Sindh.
At a close distance of the central Jail, Hyderabad, there lies the tomb of Ghulam Nabi Kalhora, Mian Ghulam Nabi was the son of Mian Noor Muhammad Chief of the Kalhora dynasty. He was 15th in succession and ruled over Sindh from 1775 to 1776.
The tomb of Ghulam Nabi Kalhora resembles in many aspects with that of his father Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhora’s tomb at Moro District Nawab-Shah. The tomb is a massive brick structure covered with lime Niru plaster and decorative glazed tile paneling. It stands over a square platform made of lime stone. The tomb itself is octagonal in plan surmounted with a pointed dome supported by sixteen sided drumand culminated by a finial fixed in the shape of an inverted lotus pattern at the top. It has only entrance on the east and a formal niche as mehrab in the western wall. There is a spacious courtyard around the tomb which was originally surrounded by a high mud wall pierced with an impressive entrance gateway in the east.